Interstellar ice consists of grains of volatiles in the ice phase that form in the interstellar medium. Ice and dust grains form the primary material out of which the Solar System was formed. Grains of ice are found in the dense regions of molecular clouds , where new stars are formed. Thereafter, atoms undergo thermal motion across the surface, eventually forming bonds with other atoms. This results in the formation of water and methanol. Frozen formaldehyde and molecular hydrogen may also be present. Found in lower abundances are nitriles , ketones , esters  and carbonyl sulfide. The composition of interstellar ice can be determined through its infrared spectrum.
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Icy Water Worlds That Might Host Life
The six major icy satellites of Saturn have been known for many years through astronomical observations, although the Voyager and Cassini encounters dramatically increased our knowledge of these bodies. All are composed of water ice with various amounts of silicate rock, and all have nearly circular orbits near the equatorial plane of Saturn. The smallest of the icy moons, Mimas, is pockmarked with craters.
Scientists have gotten their best look to date at three chaotic patches on the icy surface of Jupiter's moon Europa thanks to decade-old images from a long-defunct spacecraft. NASA's Galileo spacecraft spent eight years touring the Jupiter system, between and , and during that time it made 11 flybys of the icy moon Europa. On Sept. Now, scientists have revisited those images to prepare for future missions to the intriguing world. Related: Europa, mysterious icy moon of Jupiter in photos. Europa Clipper is a new NASA mission targeted to launch in in or and make 45 passes over the moon. During that time, it will study Europa's thin atmosphere, icy surface, hypothesized subsurface ocean and internal magnetic field, giving scientists their first look at the moon since the Galileo mission. To prepare for the new mission, scientists are trying to squeeze all the information they can out of Galileo's data — and that's where the reprocessed images come in.
Alien life may be lurking right in Earth's cosmic backyard. Some of the icy moons of Saturn and Jupiter are known to harbor subsurface oceans that could provide habitable environments. In the dark, cold sections of the Earth's ocean floor, communities of life-forms survive on the heat and nutrients from hydrothermal vents. Under the ice of Antarctica, scientists have found rich microbial ecosystems. These discoveries have opened up the possibility that life could also survive in extreme environments on other worlds. This icy moon of Jupiter is thought to harbor a liquid-water ocean more than twice the volume of all Earth's oceans. The subsurface sea, which lies underneath a thick layer of subsurface ice, likely remains a liquid because of tidal heating, which similar to tides on Earth comes from the gravitational pull of Jupiter.